Tanzania: Documentation at the Private Sector and Civil Society Agricultural Working Group
The Private Sector and Civil Society Agricultural Working Group sees itself as a forum of civil society organizations and private sector representatives who wants to identify what works and what does not in the efforts to promote agricultural development in Tanzania, and to advocate for best practices in the agricultural sector in this country. It was formed in mid-2006. Its members include VECO Tanzania, MVIWATA, PELUM, Oxfam GB, Oxfam Ireland, MS Tanzania,
Concern Worldwide, the Agricultural Council of Tanzania, Tanzania Organic Agriculture Movement (TOAM), ActionAid and private companies such as Katami Ltd. The PSCSAWG aadvocates for a pro poor and conducive agriculture policy and business environment where CSOs and the private sector effectively engage with and influence agriculture sector policies and practices. It provides effective analysis of existing agriculture policies and providing alternative views/directions, and provides a platform for learning, sharing, networking and coalition building around best practices and key issues in the agriculture sector.
Their interest in documentation
As many other organisations, the members of PSCSAWG have been engaged in the agricultural sector with various results. However, the successes and failures of these engagements have largely remained limited to themselves. There has been yet no consistent system and mechanism in place to capture best practices and lessons learned from these initiatives. As they mentioned, the results have been a missed opportunity on the part of all actors to draw on the best practices and innovations and to avoid duplication of efforts, respources and avoid mistakes that hinder development. It is on this background that the group decided to train a few people within th PSCSAWG so that they have the necessary skills to document and train others on how to document.
ILEIA was therefore invited to run a documentation workshop. This took place during the third week of July 2007 in Dar es Salaam, involving representatives of all the member organisations. As part of the exercise, all participants worked on the documentation of Concern's project "Empowering citizens to claim their right to land". The results of this exercise are available here. Later on, some of the member organisations of PSCSAWG started their own documentation process. One of these is Katani Ltd.
In July 2007, the Private Sector Civil Society Agricultural Working Group commissioned a Public Expenditure Tracking Study (PETS) in four randomly selected districts. The findings will be used to inform allocations and practices in public funds management. These were shared with a range of stakeholders together with the results of the different documentation efforts, in the "Forum for Learning and Experience Sharing" which took place in Tanga between the 19th and the 22nd of November, 2007. The purpose of the event is to share an understanding of what is actually working in the agricultural sector in Tanzania and show this through presentation of cases. The plan is to make the forum an annual event.
Katani's documentation experience
As one of the member organisations of the Private Sector and Civil Society Agricultural Working Group, Katani Limited is interested in showing a best practice approach to commercial farming through small holder schemes or contracting farming in sisal. They were present in the July workshop in Dar es Salaam. Later, they followed the same process described in the workshop and used the material which was given there (the documentation manual), adding to the process some information from this website.
Their main problem was time, and as a result they could not do such a lengthy process as they wanted to, nor was it possible to discuss more with a larger group of farmers. Katani's representatives met with the farmers on a weekend as this was their best time and convinient, and they all took a day to go through all the process. The methodology and the tables were shown with a projector, so the whole group filled in the tables as they went along. As Katani deals with the farmers regularly they decided to narrow down the list to the farmers who had started the scheme from the beggining (the pioneers we call them) and had the most development (meaning most investment and dedication) in the scheme.
The documentation process went very well. Most farmers were delighted to be part of an effort to put down on paper their struggles and achievements, not onlyfor other people to learn but also for themselves. It was strongly agreed that they should build up their own competence to be able to do their own documentation as well due to the fact that it brought many issues significant to them that they had never considered as crucial before. Katani officers also felt that they learned a few things about the farmers' perceptions that they had not known before. The company has ageed that it is necessary to document further its activities and also find ways to incorporate the process into their regular operations to start compiling information that can be used again elsewhere or in similar schemes. They feel their successes should be shared with others and also, more importantly, give people a chance to contribute in improving the scheme as they go along. There is thus a serious desire to document further all aspects of the sisal industry. What follows is one of the first results of these efforts:
"Sweat Equity": The sisal smallholder and outgrower scheme at Makuyuni
Sisal has more than a century old history in Tanzania beginning in 1892, when Dr. Richard Hindorf, a German Agronomist, introduced the plant in Pangani, Tanga. Sisal grew and became the largest commercial agricultural activity during the colonial times up to independence when in 1964 Tanzania became the world’s leading producer and exporter of sisal fibre, producing 230,000 tons. During the beginning of the parastatal era in 1967 when the industry was nationalised sisal was still a major income earner both local and foreign,providing employment to over a million people around the country leading in exports and considered a national crop.
The predecessor to Katani Ltd, the Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA), was directly responsible for all steps in the sisal value chain from primary production, through to processing to produce sisal fibre, manufacturing of sisal fibre products, corporate management, regulation of the industry in Tanzania, and international marketing of sisal fibre and products. However, a negative climate of overly centralised and political governance led to the imposition of unfriendly business policy instruments like export taxes, the killing of initiative and accountability of staff at all levels, high turnover in senior management and over employment leading to a dramatic drop in sisal production and corporate loss making. More so, failure to respond in a timely way to the growing competition in the global marketplace both from alternative fibre’s like synthetics and from other sisal producing countries gave way to a dramatic drop in the contribution of the sisal industry to the local economy and the death of savings and credit organisations. Furthermore, the lack of investment capital in assets, organisational development and Research and Development deteriorated the situation further. Also due to the very low utilisation of the sisal plant, only 2%, and lack of change, innovation and diversification the state of affairs continued to worsen as there were no alternatives. Thereafter production declined year by year reaching 20,000 tons by the year 2000, which is 10% of the tonnage produced in the peak years.
Although, in 1964 a presidential directive to create smallholder farming schemes was introduced, but due to poor planning, management and lack of a commercialised approach the scheme was abandoned by farmers after a decline in prices and market. Nonetheless the former TSA re-started smallholder sisal farming at Kimamba Fibres in 1994 and later at Kingolwira Estate both in the Morogoro Region. After privatisation of TSA in 1998 Katani Ltd continued with the scheme and introduced it in all of its estates.
In order to have a successful continuation of the scheme a thorough study was done locally looking at the sugar, cotton and coffee industries and internationally in Brazil, Mexico and China on similar smallholder and contract farming schemes. It was therefore envisaged that the creation of rural entrepreneurs and commercialisation of agricultural activities would create wealth and reduce poverty in a less costly way.
The challenge was changing the current plantation based mode of production to smaller commercial sized units run by smallholder/out grower farmers thus cutting the cost of production while at the same time increasing the income of the commercial farmer significantly. This would lead to expanding ownership of the industry to address social, economic and political, and food security issues thus ensure economic empowerment. However, the lack of start up investment capital for land preparation, seed preparation and upkeep is an issue that has been continuously addressed due to financial difficulties facing the agriculture sector in Tanzania. This has also brought about the need of incentives for creation of rural employment, commercial farmers and entrepreneurship capacity building to generate knowledge and skills giving farmers the opportunity for greater wealth creation and reduction of poverty. An example of this is the lack of organisational structures, managerial and marketing skills by the farmers who are already in a position of earning significantly higher incomes compared to before they started establishing and harvesting their sisal farms.
The Sisal Smallholder and Outgrower (SISO) Scheme
In building up, implementing and establishing the SISO scheme towards current best practices a number of fundamental steps were undertaken by Katani Ltd and the farmers through various activities;
- The expansion of sisal production to satisfy increasing market demand for natural fibre and environmentally friendly products is an essential part of the strategy. This is part of a strategy developed from the diversification and innovation of Sisal production and value added products through research and development of new products and markets through increasing the utilisation of the sisal plant. The research and development of enhanced sisal farming techniques for example Merimeristic Tissue Culture (MTC), modernisation of sisal farming practices for example COAD Enhanced Planting Systems (CEPS), introduction of new processing machinery for example short fibre extraction plant (FEX) and the production of value added products i.e. paper, energy, etc is being undertaken such as the shift to high plant density planting by farmers in Mwelya and the utilisation of enhanced nurseries techniques (ENT) by the Estate.
- As the Spreading of benefits and risks of the Tanzanian Sisal Industry with more stakeholders continues through the SISO scheme and plans of establishing new farms and estates around the country carry on, the development of a value chain by segmenting activities and stakeholders in implementation and specialisation of sisal activities is taking place. Therefore, through the introduction of the smallholder scheme in estates and farms the establishment of service providers, support and financial services is arising in these areas which did not have access to such facilities in an organised and focused manner. The increased use of the local banking services by farmers, the increasing availability of transport and field activity vehicles for hire in Mwelya Estate are examples of this.
- Part of the problems faced in agricultural and rural areas by farmers is a lack of organisation thus the reluctance of service providers and finance facilitators to invest which is now being addressed thoroughly through smallholders and outgrowers by accessing technical, marketing and financial support (e.g.: agricultural credit) for the sisal industry. The Creation of credit and saving organisations, and rural financial support and development centres has been established as a key factor in sustaining self development and growth of the farms. This has been achieved through the establishment of Saving and Credit Cooperative Societies (SACCOS) that have been recently been transformed into a larger financial organ namely Mkonge Umoja SACCOS Ltd. The MUSACCOS Ltd with professional management has the capacity to engage with financial organisations and investors directly ushering in the opportunity to develop Agricultural and Rural Financial Institutions and expand the relationship between the Business Development Service (BDS) providers such as Katani Ltd by taking advantage of opportunities to acquire ownership through shares that will be passed on to each individual farmer thus making them owner/shareholders in the value adding and marketing process.
- A significant element to the successful development of the SISO scheme is producing sisal fibre more cost-effectively by segmenting the process. Therefore an intensive programme of ‘prosperity workshops’ was implemented with the assistance of ACDI/VOCA and PSI Ltd to promote intensive agribusiness through sisal farming to create rural entrepreneurs by sensitising villagers, former workers and workers in the estates. The inception of the Sisal Smallholder and Outgrower (SISO) Scheme to develop commercial scale contract farmers begun in 1999 when a dozen farmers in Makuyuni took up the scheme and has now reached over 2000 farmers families.
- Thus by broadening ownership of the sisal industry it has created sustainable economic development for the farmers and other people involved. Through the Spreading and placing of the means of production to producers, farmers and service providers by providing ownership of land and farms, offering equity shares in production facilities, the manufacture of new machinery for small and large scale production and outsourcing support and extension services a very strong value chain and clearly defined segmenting has come into place. The farmers have developed a specialisation in sisal farming which provides sustainable economic means and avenues of income as sisal is harvested year round as seen from the increasing incomes of the farmers in Makuyuni, Mwelya estate. More so the farmers have an opportunity to prosper further in future investments for example Katani Ltd has offered up to 40% shareholding in its processing facilities in the estates and factory.
Business Development Service Provider – Katani Ltd
Katani Ltd has a major role to play in the scheme being the core service provider providing management and administration for technical and support services acting as a business development service (BDS) provider;
- A key issue in the development and sensitisation of the SISO scheme to villagers and workers was changing the perception of individuals and notion that sisal can only be grown by foreigners and the government on large scale farms. A significant and serious amount of energy and resources in the way of change management and capacity building of knowledge has been invested through seminars, workshops and extension services at the estate where the farmers in Makuyuni were motivated and started planting becoming pioneers of the scheme developed from work previously done in prosperity workshops. An unexpected result of the effort put into educating people on the benefits of sisal is the high investment in sisal farming by professionals from city areas.
- The establishment and operation of the SISO scheme in Mwelya was facilitated through the estate providing technical support, however the pace of development is still dependant on the efforts made by the individual as there are 9 villages in Mwelya but Makuyuni has shown to be the most entrepreneurial. The Motivation of farmers among the many personal reasons was the opportunity to become part of the process and be empowered as it is always pointed out that even during the colonial and parastatal years the people who worked the fields and the factory are one in the same farmers or their relatives or neighbours therefore what is needed is their initiative. More so, the importance of local government participation is crucial in providing support to initiatives by farmers through the various programmes developed by the government in the ASDP that go hand in hand with the SISO scheme for example the farmers in Mwelya through the PADEP initiative have accessed funds for improving infrastructure, being major repairs to a bridge leading to the factory, also funds for training and establishment of an enhanced nursery for quality planting material.
- Monitoring and evaluation of the SISO scheme became a Katani issue although responsibility and ownership of the farms are the farmer’s as this was still a new concept to many participants leading to ad hoc and poor record keeping by farmers. It is envisaged through the organisation of farmers groups and more the SACCOS this activity will be taken up by the farmers themselves on a daily basis with Katani overseeing and providing technical support and guidance.
- Promotion and increasing awareness of the SISO scheme has been a challenge to Katani due to the lack of sufficient resources and the issues of handling change in the internal marketing of scheme as this for many meant crossing new borders in the operations of the company. In Makuyuni where many of the farmers have progressed with their farms there have been many instances of doubt and questioning of future prospects due to a lack of knowledge as the capacity and funding required to fully build up there competences has always been in deficit, owing to the fact this is a continuous process that is costly and requires time i.e. the provision of extension services that at this time are only available with Katani Agricultural Officers who are limited to the company resources available at a cost to the farmer.
- The availability of support, extension and capacity building for farmers in the Sisal industry is very limited and at a cost, for example there are no government employed sisal extension officers as in coffee, cotton, cashew nuts, etc. Coupled with the lack of funds and facilities as one Agricultural officer and field assistant per estate with an average of 200 to 300 farmers do not have the resources to service all the farmers at the pace where significant steps can be achieved, for example in Makuyuni the area allocated by Katani is full and farmers are beginning to develop areas outside of the estate boundaries. However, efforts to mitigate this shortage of resources through an Initial agreement with the local government to outsource these extension services has been reached where the agricultural officers will be facilitated as they are professionally qualified to give extension on other crops that are grown in and around the sisal farms.
- Other avenues that are being followed up are the mobilisation of resources towards maintaining the growth and development of the SISO scheme. Difficulty in obtaining adequate financing at reasonable interest rates and human resources has posed a great challenge but with the success of the sisal farmers in Makuyuni where they have invested 100% from own pocket has shown a serious commitment and stability in the SISO scheme thus recently brining interest by financial organisations and venture capitalists to bring in investment. For example there have been talks with some investors to set up various additional income earning activities such an energy production plant, and complementary farming and husbandry schemes at the estate.
- The processing and marketing aspect of the SISO scheme is handled by Katani Ltd as this is one of its core strengths with a wide market base locally, regionally and globally selling from its own factories that guarantee the farmer a ready and competitive market place for their produce. The challenge is to build knowledge of the price mechanism that dictates the price offered to the farmer as this is a never ending debate in any contract farming scheme, however the importance of farmers to understand is necessary for their informed decision making. From the research undergone into smallholder schemes the issue of transparency and simplicity of the value chain is critical for increasing competitiveness such as traceability and marketability in the market which starts at the farm level where quality control is initiated and furthermore the development of interest in new products is fostered for example the shifting of farmers to high density planting to facilitate the supply of leaf for short fibre processing and energy production facilities increasing their income along with traditional long fibre processing.
The Farmers Perspective
In order to highlight the experience and perception of the farmers an in-depth view of their analysis of the SISO scheme is discussed through criteria of the positive and negative issues surrounding them within the scheme;
- The activity of Sisal farming as an agricultural activity was still a new concept for many of the farmers who joined the scheme even though many grew up around sisal as the inside knowledge of field activities was known in bits and pieces. However, initially the farmers took up the opportunity to attain sizeable amounts of land for farming their usual maize crops at no cost as the estate land was simply distributed through a first come first served basis. Nonetheless the chance to have an additional cash crop was also an added incentive. More so the opportunity to increase monetary incomes was also viewed as an added benefit. The fact that sisal is an easy crop to cultivate made the proposal more favourable as the sisal was more of an additional crop to the farmers initially to go with their maize at more or less no additional cost in comparison to the free of charge land attained. Still the opportunity for obtaining a sustainable cash crop and increased food production as a package was the most attractive to the farmers as they could take the risk of planting the sisal without affecting their usual activities they were accustomed too and have a sustainable income generating activity for men, women and youth.
Although the many opportunities were visible to the farmers at the outset, presently some of the major concerns for them in having a prosperous future in sisal farming is the non-ownership of farms and there need of proper organisation for establishing revenue and expenditure. Also the lack of appropriate infrastructure i.e. permanent roads in and outside the established estates, insufficient capacity to properly maintain farms and the lack of suitable machinery for field operations such as light tractors for maintenance, harvesting and transportation to the factory as this is their responsibility which Katani is providing the service presently at a cost to the farmers. The lack of good Knowledge of best sisal farming practices is also an issue that the farmers need to address as this is a continuous process for sustained improvement. This is compounded by the inadequate financial resources in hand due to the lack of the availability of long term loans at appropriate interest rates.
- The concept of Contract farming was a totally new thing to the farmers let alone the aspect of contracting. However due to the stipulations of the bilateral agreement that outlines the responsibilities of each party the farmers find the contract and notion of contract farming to be a very good stimulator of hard work and bringing about a feeling of responsibility and accountability in their daily activities. Moreover, the binding of a contract to the farmers brings about a sense of belonging and respect that acts as a motivator of adhering to organised work principles. For many farmers it gives a sense of direction, a goal to achieve and look forward too and keeps them busy instead of misusing idle time for example in the contract it is stipulated a minimum of how much area is to planted annually which through the assistance of the agricultural officers it is broken down into daily objectives for the farmers reach. Many farmers feel that without the contract they would have been very heavy handed or not have taken up the opportunity or have the respect of being a sisal farmer. More importantly the contract for the farmers means a guarantee of contractual partner rights being upheld that gives them equal opportunity in the decision and direction of the development of their farms providing an opportunity for self development.
- The principles of Commercial farming to the farmers are still a challenge as this requires them to build up the skills and competence of operating a commercial activity. The lack of appropriate administrative and marketing skills in the farmers approach to their activities needs to be fully addressed although they recognise that the system is there and they need to change their frame of mind and handling of their farms. Much training and capacity building is needed to accelerate the efforts being done of establishing farmers groups and the SACCOS to take over the administration of the field operations from Katani as this is a responsibility of the farmer.
- The issue of empowerment to the farmers brings about the understanding of being given the opportunity for self development through the facilitation of resources that will support growth and development. Through sisal contract farming the farmers are seeing the necessity of having a structured and organised commercial income generating activity that can create savings and establish their own equity base for future investment and access to finance through financial organs such as SACCOS. Also the opportunity to obtain ownership of land and their farms is a fundamental step forward for the farmers as this will secure their investment in sisal. The prospect of being an owner/shareholder and being included in the decision making process is furthermore significant to the farmers as the inclusion to decisions that will dictate their future plans in life give them the assurance of what they are doing today will directly bring back the benefits to themselves first. However, presently the lack of resources for knowledge and capacity building is a hindrance to their growth and development as their access to training and skills building for self development and empowerment are still scarce.
The other vital issue that was raised and discussed by the farmers was the importance of having a clear and defined route for growth and development of their farms and the sustainability of the SISO scheme;
- The sustained development of improving sisal farming activities is essential to the stability of the farms and scheme in keeping up with global market demands for sisal. The continuous improvement of efficiency in yield and productivity will assure the farmer of having a comparative competitive advantage in the market place. Through research that is being undertaken by Katani Ltd in improving sisal farming techniques the farmer will have the opportunity to exploit and maximise the production of their farm through the use of modern seedling preparation (MTC), enhanced planting systems (CEPS) and whole plant harvesting.
- The availability of constant and favourable market conditions is crucial to assure the farmers of a return on investment in the farms and their livelihoods. Accessibility to marketing channels in a timely manner with favourable profit margins and markets for produce offers a more desirable investment and incentive to engage in sisal farming as opposed to other alternative crops. The market mechanism set up in the SISO scheme contractually assures the farmer of a ready market at the processing centre at the estate that it self has a market at the factory where value adding is done and Katani has set up local and global connections to markets.
- The potential to become an owner/shareholder of means of production is significant in creating a harmonised and synchronised system of production. An opportunity to have a say in the decision making process and investments offers the farmer the opportunity to be fully included in the direction of the activities thus clearly showing future prospects to be gained and the effort required, but also the problems that may occur and need a joint effort in solving. The set up of the SISO scheme is to purposely create a participative environment where responsibility, accountability, profitability, risk and loss is shared among the parties hence promoting transparency and flexibility in the process.
- Establishment and development of SISO scheme has seen success as by December 2003 farmers at Mwelya had harvested 1,814 meters of sisal leaf from 728 hectares planted and sold to the estate earning Tsh. 6,555,774 (US $ 6,244) since first planting in 1999. The allocation of farms, implementation of planting, maintenance and harvesting activities have been executed successfully with 54 farmers in Makuyuni out of 285 in Mwelya who harvested over 1,200 meters of leaves from 291.5 hectares generating over Tsh 12,000,000/= in September and over Tsh 158,000,000/= in 2007 from the estate. The department of Planning and Investment, Katani Ltd is responsible for monitoring and evaluation through the Research Coordinator Mr Gideon Senge’nge who has produced a sisal farmer’s guide booklet in Swahili that gives all the technical information on sisal farming. The number of applications for land and requests from farmers for joining the scheme outside of estate boundaries is growing for example farmers in Makuyuni have requested over 400 hectares but have been allocated 299 hectares which are fully developed. Sourcing of adequate micro finance to assist farmers to invest properly in best practice sisal farming techniques through the SACCOS is being addressed for example the loan agreement reached with CRDB. Take up of the scheme by people in town and city areas from Dar es Salaam up to Arusha is growing with interest to start new estates in different regions.
- Introduction of modern best practice sisal farming techniques in the estates is a continuous process in the implementation of research results in the field through sensitisation and dissemination of information through Estate Agricultural Officers. The significant shift of farmers to new planting techniques and land utilisation of 6,000 plants per hectare and the availability of sufficient good planting material for establishment of nurseries to meet planting demands through the PADEP initiative accessed by the farmers groups in Mwelya estate are good examples of current efforts.
- Developing local entrepreneurs in to commercial farmers through the organisation of farmers into groups, the allocation of land and transfer of knowledge and skills by providing seminars, printed materials (sisal farming guidebook in Swahili) and field training sourced from Katani resources and other developmental organisations, shows from the statistics collected the development of farmers groups and individuals producing and operating sisal farms are investing and taking a more commercial approach to their farms and increasing income. The lack of resources to educate and train farmers in administration, operation and marketing activities in small businesses is still a challenge although the interest and eagerness of farmers to want to acquire knowledge and expand their activities is very much present.
- Technical support and Extension services in the estate are provided for in agronomy, engineering and accounting services through estate management and infrastructure backed by Katani Head Office as a BDS. Establishment of the Estate as a self sustaining entity operating as a Farm Centre for farmers providing financial, agricultural, mechanical and marketing services is being undertaken for example Mwelya estate will be transformed in to a limited company where farmers groups can acquire a shareholding. Some difficulties have been experienced developing the farms such as trespassing, theft, sabotage and pilferage of estate assets and boundaries by villagers, also inadequate public services present a drawback. However, recognition by the Local Government District Council as service provider for farmers provides an opportunity for outsourcing to increase the availability of support services.
- Growth and development of sustainability and financing is addressed through the formation and organisation of farmers groups, associations and administrative and financial systems in an organised manner by clustering of farmers and linking them with the Estate management and BDS provider in this case Katani Head Office. The incorporation of a cooperative society (SACCOS) and farmers self administered groups was a challenge at Makuyuni and the other groups in Mwelya due to the lack of skills and increasing desire to access financing. Setting up and formalising farmers into a SACCOS and acquiring appropriate financing by unifying the cooperatives into a larger financial organ and increasing access to finance is an achievement that has overcome the encumbrances that were present in the small groups that limited their capacity to provide the desired service. The farmers in Makuyuni are also the first to shift to the larger cooperative continuing with the entrepreneurial spirit and more openness to taking up opportunities available to them.
- New product and market development activities are in the process of being Completed and commercialised from research results undergone by Katani Ltd coordinated by the Department of Planning and Investment at Hale Estate project site. The implementation of new products in the operation of estate activities is envisaged to increase productivity and effectiveness towards building a stronger value chain that can be segmented further and integrated to create more opportunities for the farmers in Makuyuni. However, the lack of resources for commercialisation and awareness creation to industry and stakeholders still poses a challenge.
The development of the SISO scheme as part of an effort to diversify and innovate sisal, products and the industry was conceptualised to widen the means of production and reduce the cost of production at the same time offer a sustainable economic activity creating rural entrepreneurs through the utilisation of new technologies. In the implementation of the scheme the many challenges facing local agricultural based industry are addressed successfully with many additional positive results that offer the possibility of replicating the scheme in different settings in an effort to promote sustainable social and economic development in the most underprivileged areas in the country. The favourable global conditions and national strategies developed assure the success of the scheme in a comparatively competitive environment that will meet desired outcomes on many levels and foremost benefiting the local farmer. The opportunities for farmers need to be addressed through public awareness and promotion forums, the government needs to take an active role in putting in place the resources and financing, and the non governmental institutions can participate directly through the farmers groups, therefore this can be done all over Tanzania and it should be done to ensure the development of the people and economy as a whole.
Please write to Frederick Kwame, Oxfam GB
Chairperson for PSCSAWG